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General Discussion / Re: Glossa Ordinaria translation- Epistles of St. John
« Last post by glossa on May 15, 2015, 09:14:16 pm »
5:11 And this is the testimony, that God has given us life everlasting. And this life is in his Son.
And this is the testimony. He has testified about the Son, and also about us his adopted sons, that through his only Son he would give us too, now in hope, one day in reality, eternal life.
And this life is in his Son. In faith, and in the confession of the name, in the receiving of his Sacraments; because no one comes to the Father if not through him (Jn. 14:6). And there is no other name whereby we must be saved (Acts, 4:12). And to avoid to seem not to have said enough that life is in the Son, he adds that the Son himself is that life. For as the Father has life in himself, so has he given life to his Son to have it in himself, who gives his people eternal life. (Bede Expo. On 1 John)

5:12 He that ahas the Son, has life: bhe that has not the Son of God, has not life.

a.By believing and imitating.  b. But...

5:13 aThese things I write to you, that you may bknow cthat you have eternal life which believe in the name of the Son of God.

a. In these things you must place faith, because…  b. So that you might be assured of your future beatitude.  c. So that you should not be seduced by the deceits of those who deny that Christ is the Son of God, because you will have life as your faith deserves.

5:14 And athis is the confidence which we have toward him: that, whatsoever we shall ask according to his will, bhe hears us. 

And this is the confidence. He inculcates in various ways the same things that he had promised, in order to incite us more vigorously to pray. (Bede Expo. On 1 John)
According to his will. So that we ask for what he wishes us to, or so that we come to ask while being such as he wants us to be. If we want our salvation or that of our neighbors, we are not at variance with God's will; but if our will moves away from God's will through ignorance, God's good will corrects our foolish will, as it happened to the apostle Paul. (Bede Expo. On 1 John)

According to his will. Not according to our fleshly desires, because what to ask as we should, we do not know, unless he himself show his will, who understands what is useful for us better than we ourselves do. If we ask according to his will, we obtain, as when we ask for a brother for whom there is need to ask.
a. And not only ought you to hope heavenly goods in the future out of faith in Christ, but even in this life there is confidence that we shall obtain when we ask something in a healthy way.  b. He who says, “Seek first the kingdom of God, and all will be added to you" (Matt. 6:33).

5:15 And we know that he ahears us *whatsoever we *shall ask: we know that we have the petitions which we request of him.

We know that, etc. Since we know that we have from him the petitions which we ask, we ask nothing that might be against him, we ask nothing except that which he has taught us, that which he has inspired us, and if we err in something, we are corrected at once.

a. Not only will he hear in future time, but we also know that he has heard and hears everyday. And through this that we are heard now, we are certain concerning the future.  *According to his will.  *And not only in future time, in giving [to us] the outcome of asking. 

5:16 aHe* that knows his brother to sin a sin not to death, blet him ask, and clife shall be given him, esinning not fto death. gThere is a sin to death: hfor *that I say not that any man ask.

He that knows his brother. He is talking of the everyday and light sins which are healed as easily as they are difficultly avoided. If you have sinned in word, in thought, by forgetfulness or by ignorance, confess to a brother, as James teaches, ask him to intercede for you (Jm. 5). And if he confesses to you in his turn, intercede for him too. Here the prayer of the Lord suffices, and mutual confession. It is a light penitence. Then if the sin is a serious one, bring in the priests of the church, and chastise yourself after their examination. (Bede Expo. On 1 John)
There is a sin to death which separates you from God as death separates the soul from God. There is a sin to death.
The Lord orders to pray for persecutors; here he (John) says that there are some people for whom you must not pray, because there are sins in brothers that are more serious than the persecution of enemies; the sin of a brother is to death when, after the knowledge of God was given to him through grace of God, someone attacks the brotherhood, and is agitated by the firebrands of envy against the grace by which he was reconciled. It is a sin not to death if someone has not removed his love from his brother, but through some weakness of the mind has not fulfilled the duties of brotherhood, whence Christ, "Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do" (Lk. 23:34), for they had not yet been made sharers through the grace of the Spirit and had not yet entered the society of the holy brotherhood. So did Stephen too pray for those who had not received God's grace. Paul does not pray for Alexander; because, as he was already a brother, he was attacking the brotherhood. For those who had yielded out of fear he does pray. All left me alone but may it not be laid to their charge (ref. 2 Tim. 4:16). (Bede Expo. On 1 John)
a. Not criminally, or not unto the end of his life. *Through confession, or by another way.   b. For him.    c. Shall be given by God thanks to your prayer. e. I mean to him.  f. Not criminally.  g. But.    h. To the death of life.  *Because that which is not corrected in this life, its pardon is hoped in vain after death; it can also be taken as referring to any criminal sin. Whatever differs from the measure of equity is numbered among sins, but the very little sins are not prejudicial to the just; but some sins are so opposed to all justice that if they are not corrected they plunge you into punishment.

5:17 All iniquity is sin. And there is a sin to death.
All iniquity is sin. All, as if he were saying, "One must truly pray for those sinning not to death, because everyone is invaded by many sins, and no one can be without sin, because all iniquity is sin. But above others is a sin to death, which is not committed out of human frailty, and therefore is not purged by the prayer of the just, because those who do such things will not possess the kingdom of God. (Bede Expo. On 1 John)

5:18 aWe know that everyone which is born of God, *sins not: but the bgeneration of God preserves him, and the wicked one touches him not.

Everyone which is born. He who is born of God does not sin to death, he who is not born of God does sin. But we are among those who are born of God. Therefore we shall not sin, we shall not be touched by the enemy, but lovers of the world are subject to the wicked enemy. (Bede Expo. On 1 John)

Sins not. David sinned greatly, but because he was born of God, he belonged to the society of the sons of God: he did not sin to death, but by repenting he deserved forgiveness. (Bede Expo. On 1 John)

But the generation of God preserves. Those who persevere in the generation of God cannot sin, nor be touched by the wicked one. As day and night cannot mix, so justice and iniquity, the wicked one and the generation of God cannot mix. Therefore the wicked one touches some, hurting and afflicting them, but not to their harm. (Bede Expo. On 1 John)

But the generation. Because it is voluntarily and not by nature that a man of this kind is the son of God, he suitably added this. (Didymus of Alexandria Expo. 1 John)
a. Who has the seed of God in him, is not able to sin unto death; for he is not able at the same time to perform righteousness as well as sin.  * Sin unto death.  b. The grace by which are reborn those who, according to His purpose, are called to be saints (Rom. 8:28) preserves them from committing sin to death, and if out of human frailty they have committed fault in any things, it protects them so that they may not be touched by the wicked enemy.

5:19 We know that we are aof God, and the whole world is set in wickedness. 
The whole world. Not only the lovers of the world, but also those recently born who do not have the ability to discern between good and evil, because of the first transgression they belong to the kingdom of the Devil, unless they are delivered from darkness by the grace of God.

a. Reborn in baptism.

5:20 And we know that the Son of God acomes: and he has given bus understanding, that we may cknow the true God, and may dbe in *his true Son. eThis is the true God, and life everlasting.

And we know that the Son. Without divine knowledge no one is able to arrive at eternal life. No one is able to know without the grace of God. Because no one knows the Son except the Father, nor does anyone know the Father except the Son and him to whom the Son wants to reveal both the Father and the Son. For the Son reveals both, who, appearing visibly in the flesh, disclosed the secrets of the divinity to the world through the Gospel. (Bede Expo. On 1 John)
a. Through the flesh, only for our salvation.  b. Who believe.  c. By believing that he is the true Son of God.  d. By loving.  *As members.   e. Through him we shall be gods living without end in God, in him who lives without beginning or end.
5:21 My little children, keep ayourselves from idols. Amen.
Little children keep. And since you are getting to know the true God and true man, and you wait for eternal life, beware of the doctrines of heretics, who put upon themselves the look of holiness, who by crooked doctrines change the glory of the incorruptible God into the likeness of corruptible things. For greed is the slavery of idols; those who place the world before God are idolaters. (Bede Expo. On 1 John)
Keep. Though he has presented to them in many words the testimony of perfection, it may however be feared that someone recently converted may have retained vestiges of superstition in his mind. (Didymus of Alexandria Expo. 1 John)
a. As holy vessels.
General Discussion / Re: Glossa Ordinaria translation- Epistles of St. John
« Last post by glossa on May 15, 2015, 09:13:33 pm »
Chapter 5
5:1 Whosoever believes that Jesus is aChrist, is bborn of Him. And every one that loves chim which dbegat: eloves him also that was *born of fhim.

Whosoever believes. He believes who lives as Christ has commanded, otherwise even the demons believe.
And works before faith are either null or, even if they seem good, they are empty, because they are apart from the way which is Christ. (Bede Expo. On 1 John)

Whosoever believes. He who truly loves God, also loves his brother. For he who loves God the Father, loves God the Son, who was begotten by the Father, and he who loves the Son of God, loves also the sons of God, who are the limbs of that Head. Therefore let us love the sons of God so that we may love the Son of God whose limbs they are, and, by loving the entire Son, let us love the Father. For love joins together the body of Christ, so that there may be one Christ. So he who loves his brother, loves himself. For he is himself one with him. Nor can he who loves the limbs of Christ not love Christ. So he who loves the Son, who is the same as the Father, necessarily loves the Father too. Whosoever believes. And he who truly loves God, loves also his brother. For he who loves God who begot, loves him who was begotten, since he was begotten by him. And who is born? Whosoever believes, etc. And who is it who begot? God the Father. Therefore, he who loves God who begets in faith, loves him who was begotten in faith. And speaking suitably about love, he mentions faith, because if anyone is so hard as to disdain to love a man for the reason that he is a man, because he is in the same exile, he must be reminded to love him for this reason at least, that he is born of God, that he is a sharer of the same grace. But because many love their neighbors on account of consanguinity, or on account of a temporal advantage, he determines who is a true lover of one’s neighbor. (Bede Expo. On 1 John)

a. Messiah.  b. In this faith.  c. God.  d. In faith.  e. Man.  * In faith.   f. God.

5:2 aIn this we know that when we love the children of God, we love God, and keep his *commandments.

a. He who is rightly proven to love his neighbor is he who also loves God. And so that no one should deceive themselves concerning the love of God, saying in word only that they love God, he adds "and keep his commandments". As a proof of love is the display of work.  *This is my commandment, that you love one another (Jn. 15:12).

5:3 For athis is the charity of God that we keep his bcommandments: and his commandments are not heavy.

(They) are not heavy. They do not weigh down as a talent of lead, but they lift up, and the keeping of the commandments of God makes men elevated. (Didymus of Alexandria Expo. 1 John)

Are not heavy. For the yoke of God is sweet, and a light burden. For things that are hard and harsh by their nature, the love of God and the hope of the reward makes light. If someone says that they are heavy, he accuses his own weakness, because for the strong man they are light, and in truth they are not heavy, because all that is born of God, overcomes the world (verse 4). He is born of God who loves God and neighbor, and who about God's commandments has so determined, that he would bring them to action. And he overcomes the world, despises the allurements or hostilities of the age, and the very death of the body.
He seeks the things that are above, not those that are on earth. And so that no one should trust that he can overcome the world by his own merit, he adds, "and this is the victory which overcomes the world: our faith" (verse 4). That faith which works through love, and which solicits God's help. (Bede Expo. On 1 John)

a. Through this is proven that the love of God is in us, if we keep his commandments, by loving the sons of God. I say at the same time that we should love God, and perform his commandments, because otherwise there is no love. He that does not love the king's law, does not love the king. Out of love for the King his law ought to be fulfilled.  b. Which ought to be kept willingly, because his commandments are not heavy.

5:4 Because all that is born of God, overcomes the world, aand this is the victory bwhich overcomes the world, our faith.

And this is the victory which overcomes the world, our faith. That faith which works through love, and requires the help of God.
a. Demonstratively, he shows faith, as if with his finger, as being firm and permanent.

5:5 aWho is he that overcomes the world, but he that believes that Jesus is the Son of God?

Who is he that overcomes, etc. He determines the kind of faith that conquers, that is, faith in Christ. As if: Truly by faith he conquers the world, because it is not conquered by something else.

Our faith. Here is the faith that conquers: the one which believes that he was a true man and a true God. (Bede Expo. On 1 John)

a. Who could have contempt for the world except him who believes Jesus to be the Christ who was prophesied, and who joins worthy works to faith?


5:6 aThis is he that came by water and blood Jesus Christ: not in water only, but in water and blood. And it is the bSpirit which testifies, that Christ is the truth.

This is he that came by water. And because only faith in and confession of the divinity of Christ is not sufficient for salvation and for conquering the world, he adds also about his humanity.

Spirit. That is the human soul which he let out in the passion, the water and blood which flowed from his side, which would not be possible if he did not have the true nature of flesh. But before the passion too, his sweat that became as drops of blood (reference to Lk. 22:44): showed the reality of his flesh. And the fact that as he was already dead, blood and water flowed vigorously from his side against the law of nature was testifying that the body of the Lord would live better after death, and that his death would give us life. As to the fact that his sweat was flowing onto the ground as blood, it indicated that he would wash the Church in the whole world with his blood. (Bede Expo. On 1 John)

a. He who was eternal came for salvation and the remission of sins through the water of baptism and the blood of the passion; not only did he deign to be baptized for our washing, and to consecrate the sacrament of baptism to us, but he also gave his blood for our redemption.  b. And although he suffered as a man, yet the Spirit was seen above him at his baptism in the appearance of a dove; or the spirit, that is every spiritual doctor testifies that Christ is the truth; the true Son of God, not a spectre; a true mediator and reconciliator, free from sin, and having sufficient power to take away the sins of the world.

5:7 For there be three which give testimony in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost, and these three be aone.

For there be three. Through this it is apparent that Jesus is truth, true God and true man. Because concerning both we have a sure testimony: concerning his divinity we have testimony through the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit; concerning his humanity, through the soul, water, and blood.

The Father gave testimony of his divinity when he said, "This is my beloved Son" (Matt. 3:17). The Son himself gave testimony when he was transfigured on the mount, and showed the power of divinity and the hope of eternal happiness. The Holy Spirit gave testimony when he rested above Jesus at his baptism in the form of a dove, or when he filled the hearts of believers for the calling of the name of Christ.

a. They are testifying about the same thing as one God.

5:8 And there be three which give testimony in earth: the Spirit, water, and blood, and these three be one.
5:9 *If we receive the testimony of men, the atestimony of God is greater, because bthis is the ctestimony of God which is greater, that he has testified dof his Son.

If we receive the testimony of men. Great is the testimony of the man David which he provides of the Son of God, "The Lord said to my Lord: Sit at my right hand" (Psalms, 109:1). And he even represents the Son speaking, "The Lord has said to me: Thou are my son" (Psalms, 2:7). Great is the testimony of the forerunner, who said, "I have baptized you with water; but he shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit" (Mark 1:8). But greater is the testimony of the Father who visibly sent into him the Spirit which he was always full of, as if he said, "If you believe the men foretelling the advent, believe the Father testifying that Christ has now come". (Bede Expo. On 1 John)

*And because we have such certain testimonies, we ought therefore to receive them, because we are accustomed to receiving even the testimonies of men who are able to lie.
a. Which must be better received.           b. Through which I prove.  c. Namely because it is the testimony.   d. This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased (Matt. 3:17).

5:10 He that believes in the Son of God, has the testimony of God in himself. aHeb that believes not the Son, makes him a cliar: because he believes not in the dtestimony which God has testified of his Son.

He that believes in the Son of God. He understands that the Father says the truth in the testimony of the Son. Who doesn't believe, he says the Father has lied. In vain do the Jews who despise Christ say that they believe in the Father, because they despise Christ.

In the Son. Since the Father testifies about the Son, let us believe in the Son; for he who so believes in the Son that by doing good works he directs his course to the Son himself, has the testimony of God in himself. As if he were saying "God testifies about him too, that, believing in this way, he will be in the number of the sons of God, As his Son himself thus promises, "If any man minister to me, him will my Father honor" (Jn. 12:26). Therefore if you have God as a witness of your faith, how will the infamy or the persecutions of men harm you? "If God be for us, who is against us?" (Rom. 8:31) (Bede Expo. On 1 John)
a. But...  b. He who says that he is not his Son, or that he is less important than the Father.  c. In saying, “I and the Father are one.”   A liar in this.   d. You are my beloved Son, in you I am well pleased. I made it clear in the passion, and I will again make it clear.

General Discussion / Glossa Ordinaria translation- Epistles of St. John
« Last post by glossa on May 15, 2015, 09:11:31 pm »
Fortunately this has been translated and is now published by Consolamini Publications here

As a preview I will provide the 5 chapter of 1 John!

Also here are some resources for anyone who wants Latin manuscripts and versions!

General Discussion / Re: Translation of the Glossa Ordinaria- Revelation
« Last post by glossa on May 15, 2015, 09:06:26 pm »
1:11 saying: That (a)which you see, (b)write in a book, and send to (c)the seven churches which are in Asia, to (d)Ephesus, and (e)Smyrna, and (f)Pergamus, and (g)Thyatira, and (h)Sardis, and (i)Philadelphia, and (j)Laodicea.
a.   Sc. which you already see or are about to see.
b.   I.e. keep it in your mind, or literally.
c.   By the seven, we can signify all churches, or literally.*
d.   I.e. it translates to "my will", "deep fall" or "advice*".
e.   I.e. "canticle".
f.   I.e. "division of the horns".
g.   I.e. "illuminated".
h.   "The beginning of beauty".
i.   "Preserving" or "saving".
j.   I.e. "lovely tribe".
That which you see, write, etc. A common warning is given to John, which advises him to send it in common to the churches of Asia, and by these, all other churches must be understood. This common warning is done to the angel of Ephesus and to all the others. John saw this vision either at the same time and in one look or through various times; the angel could have bestowed either on him1.

1:12 (a)And I (b)turned, (c)to see the voice that spoke with me. (d)And being turned I saw seven (e)candlesticks of gold:
a.   And therefore, because I heard a voice, I turned, etc.*
b.   I.e. I remembered those who were placed under my authority.
c.   I.e. to understand.
d.   And because I turned.
e.   I.e. churches illumined by the wisdom of the divine word.*
[ST. ANSELM OF LEON, PL 162.1505] Candlesticks. It is the churches that are signified because as candlesticks bear light and give it to others, so does the church bear the true light, i.e. Christ, and shows it to others by preaching his brightness. The church is said to be of gold because it is founded on love and wisdom.1
Of gold. As gold tested by fire and stretched by beatings becomes a candlestick, so does the church stretched by tribulations and by the beatings of temptations get completed.2
If it has the voice in mouth and not in work, it is a candlestick indeed, but not one of gold.3

1:13 and (a)in the middle of the seven candlesticks of gold, (b)one like the Son of man, vested in a priestly garment to the feet, and (c)(d)girded about near to the paps with a (e)girdle of gold.
a.   I.e. in public, because God offers himself to all, i.e. he is ready to come to help all.
b.   An angel in the role of Christ, who is no longer the son of man, but like the son of man, because he no longer dies.
c.   This is a sign given to us that we too should keep the thoughts of our hearts under control.*
d.   The head shows in himself what he requires from his people.
e.   The belt of love.*
Like the son of man because he appeared not with sin, but in a likeness of the flesh of sin.
A priestly garment, i.e. the flesh in which he offered himself, and offers himself every day, presenting himself to God the Father. Or the priestly garment is the church in which God is clothed as in a tunic, which is long to the ankles because it will last until the end of the world.
Girded about near to the paps. Daniel saw the same angel in the role of Christ girded1 around the loins in the Old Testament, because there fleshly works are kept under control; here he is girded near to the paps because in the New Testament the thoughts of the heart are also judged.

1:14 And his (a)head and hairs were white, as (b)white (c)wool, and as (d)(e)snow, and his (f)eyes as the flame of fire,
a.   I.e. Christ in whom is all that is necessary for the management of the Church.
b.   Shining with simplicity and innocence.*
c.   I.e. garment against cold, i.e. vices.
d.   Snow is whiter than any creature; by it the purity of immortality is meant.
e.   Immortality with glory is more glorious than any creature.*
f.   I.e. the spiritual ones* in the church, who** must see on either side.
Hairs. I.e. the saints1 made smaller2 and sticking to the head, or his thoughts.
As white wool. Or as white wool is able to take any colors, so are the saints able to take any tribulations. 3
Eyes. I.e. the gifts of the Holy Spirit which belong to Christ who has them and gives them, and to the church which receives them; eyes that illumine and make one burn. Or the eyes are the very spiritual ones in the church, or the divine commandments4.

1:15 (a)and his feet like to latten, (b)as in a burning furnace. And (c)his voice as of many waters.
a.   In another translation there is "latten of Lebanon", by which it is shown that that tribulation will have the most force* in that region where the Lord was crucified.
b.   Not any latten, but...*
c.   I.e. his preaching possesses the force of water because it cleanses. Or the voice which has already been received by many people, which are compared to water because of their abundance. You ought to stand firm all the more. Or the voice giver of many waters, i.e. graces, whence the voice follows.
[ST. ANSELM OF LEON, PL 162.1505]The feet are the last faithful who are to come in the last times, similar to heated latten because as latten is changed into the color of gold by heating, so will those faithful too by the excessive tribulation in the time of Antichrist be changed for the better. Or otherwise: feet, i.e. the last faithful who with many shocks will not retain their first nature, as latten that is often heated and takes a better color.1
Latten is a kind of metal that becomes the more precious the more it is heated, and is said to be seven times as precious as gold. Some, however, say that it is amber.2

1:16 And he had in his right hand seven stars. And (a)(b)(c)from his mouth proceeded a sharp two-edged sword: and (d)his face, as the sun shines in his virtue.
a.   Through the preachers or the Scriptures.*
b.   I.e. from his teaching proceeds preaching, which cuts both fleshly works in the Old Testament and concupiscences in the New.
c.   Whence "it is not you that speak, but the Spirit of your Father that speaks in you" (Matt. 10:20).*
d.   I.e. Those* who are like him will shine, i.e. they will become like him.
Stars. I.e. bishops, who ought to shine upon others by word and by example; who are called stars even if they have sinned, given that they have been ordained; whom he has in his right hand, i.e. in the greater and better gifts, which are signified by the right hand.
As the sun shines in his virtue. I.e. at midday1, or when it shall be fixed forever. Or as Christ himself in his resurrection, who is interpreted as the sun2.

1:17 And (a)when I had seen him, I (b)fell (c)at his feet as (d)dead. And he put (e)his right hand (f)upon me, (g)saying, (h) (i)Fear not. (j)I am the First and the Last,
a.   Because.*
b.   I.e. I threw away the care for humanity.
c.   I.e. to* the likeness of the last faithful.**
d.   Sc. to the world; alive to God. Desiring nothing belonging to the earth.
e.   I.e. his help, the comforting Spirit.
f.   I.e. upon* the strength of humanity**.
g.   Through the preachers or the Scriptures.*
h.   For this reason.*
i.   Sc. to suffer tribulations and even death, because I did not need death for myself since I am the First and the Last.*
j.   Sc. because I am... *
[ST. ANSELM OF LEON, PL 162.1506] At his feet. So that I was ready to suffer as much as the last faithful shall suffer, or ready to imitate his footsteps.1
And when I had seen. Behold, John who seemed to stand while seeing the Lord fell as dead, because the higher every holy man lifts himself to contemplate the divinity, the lower he falls within himself, because, compared to God, his greatness that he has attained is easily disdained. It is because of this that Abraham recognized that he was dust and ashes when he saw the Lord. Similarly Job "With the hearing of the ear, I have heard you, etc." (Job 42:5).2

1:18 and (a)alive, and was (b)(c)dead, (d)and behold I am (e)living forever and ever, (f)and have the keys of death and of hell.
a.   Sc. eternally.
b.   According to the flesh.*
c.   Sc. for you.*
d.   But do not be frightened, because I have manifestly risen, and I shall not die any more.
e.   Sc. eternally alive.*
f.   And I will not let you be tempted above what you can sustain, because I have power over the devil and over his members. The devil is death, because he is the cause of death*; his ministers are hell, in whom he has his place.
He who has the key of a house lets anyone he wishes in and keeps anyone he wishes from entering the house. Therefore he possesses the keys of death and of hell because he frees those he wishes from the damnation of eternal death, and on the other hand he justly lets those he wishes stay in the same danger of damnation.1

1:19 Write therefore the things (a)which you have seen, and (b)that are, and (c)that must be done (d)after these.
a.   Like in the passion and in the resurrection.*
b.   The present tribulations and the present help.
c.   Among the last faithful, by whose example the present faithful should be much encouraged.
d.   Sc. write.*

1:20 (a)The (b)(c)sacrament of the seven stars, which you have seen in my right hand, and the seven candlesticks of gold: (d)the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven candlesticks are the seven churches.
a.   You understand "I shall teach you".*
b.   Or "mystery".*
c.   Where one thing is seen and another is understood.
d.   The angel explains and partly reveals the allegory in order to inform us that an explanation must be sought everywhere.

As John plays here the role of the learner, so should we too play the role of John, so that we may learn from him as he learnt from the angel.1
General Discussion / Re: Translation of the Glossa Ordinaria- Revelation
« Last post by glossa on May 15, 2015, 09:06:16 pm »
Chapter 1
1:1 (a)The Apocalypse (b)of (c)Jesus (d)Christ which (e)God gave (f)to him, (g)to make manifest (h)to his servants (i)the things which (j)(k)must be done (l)quickly: and (m)signified, sending by (n)his (o)(p)(q)angel to (r)his servant John,
a.   I.e. the Revelation
b.   Given by the Father to Christ according to his humanity.*
c.   I.e. savior.*
d.   I.e. king.*
e.   God the Father*, as he who owes nothing.
f.   To Christ.*
g.   To make it known by word and by example
h.   Not to the Jews, not to philosophers, but to the brethren.*
i.   Concerning these things.
j.   It is inevitable or useful that they should suffer tribulations.*
k.   In the person of the Church.*
l.   Short labor, hastened glory.
m.   I.e. showed through signs.
n.   Consubstantial with him.*
o.   Sc. having the role of Christ.
p.   Of the great plan.*
q.   He says some things on Christ's behalf, as when he says "I am Alpha and Omega", and some on his own behalf, as when he forbids himself to be adored.*
r.   Humble, not proud.
The Apocalypse of Jesus Christ. He prepares the listeners to be favorable and attentive, as he does also in that place "John to the seven churches which are in Asia".
The letter is as if he were thus warning: Pay attention to this vision, because it is a vision revealed in Jesus Christ. The topic is the state of the church of Asia and of the whole present Church. The pattern is tribulations inside and outside and consolations on the other hand. The point is: short labor, sure rewards. The intention: to endure everything patiently.
Which God gave, etc. He received it as a man from the father, the word united to himself, and the Holy Spirit.1
Quickly. He says this so that they may prepare themselves, so that it may not be heavy to suffer. Labors must end quickly, and rewards be given. 2
And signified. God the Father showed them to the Son, and the Son to John, as it were through signs, under seal, so that there might be no occasion given to thieves to corrupt them, and so that it might be more pleasurable for the faithful if they understood them with effort.

1:2 (a)who has given testimony (b)to the word of God, and the testimony of Jesus Christ, (c)(d)what things soever he has seen.
a.   Who bears witness to the words of Christ himself, both those he spoke concerning the Word, i.e. the divinity, and those he spoke concerning the humanity of Jesus Christ.
b.   I.e. to the Son. The Son is called the Word because through him the Father was manifested and signified in the world.
c.   In these are things that he has seen physically, as, for example, that Jesus suffered, or that he has seen only in mind, as, for example, that he was with the father before everything.
d.   To this, "Do not seal the words of the book" (ref. 22:10).*
e.   He is really blessed, because the labor shall not last long, because the rewards are near.

1:3 (a)Blessed is he (b)that reads and (c)hears the words (d)of this prophecy, and (e)(f)keeps those things which are written in it, (g)for the time is near.
a.   Christ gave this to me, and blessed is he who receives it from me.
b.   Like the educated.
c.   Like laymen who are learning*. By this he means listeners, who are more numerous**.
d.   Of this book.*
e.   Reader and listener.*
f.   i.e. he who does not profane the faith of Christ and of the church, and fears the things threatened and seeks the things promised.
g.   He is really blessed, because the labor shall not last long, because the rewards are near.
Blessed is he that reads and hears, etc. Because this is the Apocalypse of Jesus Christ, etc. 1
He that reads, i.e. tells others what he has heard, because from one person who has read, more people can hear.
They alone are blessed who hear them to keep them in mind, who keep them in mind to fulfill them in deed, and fulfill them in deed to possess eternal life. 2
Keeps those things. So do I say "if he keeps them". For not those who hear the law, but those who act according to it are just. 3

1:4 John to the seven churches which are in (a)Asia. (b)Grace to you and (c)peace from (d)him (e)that is, and (f)that was, and (g)that shall come, and from (h)the seven spirits which are (i)in the sight of his throne,
a.   I.e. pride.*
b.   I.e. remission of sins.
c.   I.e. rest from vices.
d.   I.e. Christ.
e.   Sc. incorruptible according to his divinity.
f.   Sc. once born eternally.
g.   Such, even if he does not appear such now.*
h.   I.e. the sevenfold spirit, which is one in nature, but manifold in the distribution of graces.
i.   Angels and holy men are thrones, in whom he now sits and judges, not to judge in the future; in whom God sits, illuminating them.
To the seven churches. God gave it to Christ, Christ to John, and John to the churches; principally to those to which he had been appointed as a master, and to the others through a simile.
Or by seven all the churches are meant, because seven signifies universality, or because they are illumined by a sevenfold spirit.
Ephesus was the metropolitan city or capital of all Asia, where John was exercising superintendence.
In Asia. Asia means pride. So the church is now in the pride of virtues, and1 was formerly in the pride of vices.
This Asia is not the big one (i.e. the one that is said to be the third part of the world), but some province in which there were seven cities, and seven churches with seven bishops.2
Asia Minor is a part of greater Asia; it contains seven cities of which Ephesus is the metropolis. Paul preached the Gospel in this Asia Minor, but afterwards, with the division of the apostles, John was put in charge of it.3
Grace and peace. He prepares the listeners to be favorable and attentive, as he did also in the prologue.
And from the seven spirits. "Spirit" denotes the same as "love"; whence the remission of sins and other gifts, which are gifts of the whole Trinity, are attributed to the Spirit, so that we may understand that the Trinity works out of love alone.
He passes over in silence the person of the Father, because no one had misunderstood what concerns God the Creator; he mentions the person of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, concerning whom the heresies of Marcion and Terebinthus arise in the churches.4

1:5 and from (a)Jesus Christ who is the faithful witness, the first-born of (b)the dead, and (c)the prince of (d)the kings of the earth, who (e)(f)has loved us, and (g)washed us from (h)our (i)sins in (j)his blood.
a.   As he is about to say more, he speaks again about Christ.*
b.   I.e. those who, despairing concerning the death of Christ, said, "But we hoped that it was he that should have redeemed Israel" (Lk.24:21).*
c.   Let this not frighten us, because he has risen again and is impassible. Or the prince of those who mortify themselves, because he has committed no sin.
d.   I.e. those who control earthly matters.*
e.   Especially the preachers*.
f.   I.e. deemed it worthy to die.*
g.   Sc. with love alone.
h.   Not his, because he has not sinned.
i.   Sc. original and actual.
j.   Not that of a calf or of a ram as in the old law.
He commends the person of the Son, who had made this revelation to John through an angel, as if he were saying: believe this revelation1 which Christ has made manifest, he who suffered for us and rose again, who did not deny that he was God even when death was imminent. Or the witness of our works in the day of the judgment, when he says "You saw me hungry and thirsty" (See Matt. 25:35) and "Come, you blessed of my Father, etc." (Matt. 25:34).
Prince of the kings of the earth. The prince of earthly powers, having the power to remove them, and permitting the wicked to serve the interests of his people, or of the saints2.

1:6 And has made us (a)(b)a kingdom and (c)(d)priests to God and (e)his Father, (f)to him be (g)(h)glory and (i)(j)empire forever and ever. Amen.
a.   I.e. capable of resisting vices.
b.   According to the fact that he is a man. (c) According to the fact that he is God.*
c.   I.e. offering ourselves to God for ourselves and for our brethren.
d.   I.e. Creator.*
e.   And therefore.
f.   Sc. for what concerns himself.*
g.   For him to be praised.*
h.   For what concerns other benevolent men.*
i.   So that you should obey him.

1:7 (a)Behold he comes with (b)the clouds, and (c)every eye shall see him, and (d)they that pricked him. And (e)all the tribes of the earth (f)shall bewail themselves upon him. (g)Yes. Amen.
a.   He speaks in the manner of prophets, who saw things to come as if they were present, as "Behold a virgin shall conceive" (Isaias 7:14).*
b.   I.e. the saints.*
c.   The good to be rejoiced, the wicked to be confounded.*
d.   So that they be tormented more. Like the Jews and Pilate.* [HAIMO OF AUXERRE, PL 117.948]
e.   I.e. all the earthly people and those who are given over to vices.*
f.   I.e. they shall grieve when seeing those who are founded above them*, and they shall not grieve as much because of their torment itself as because they are rejected from such a community.
g.   As if he were saying: Surely, this is true.*
Behold he comes. You really ought to preach him and praise him1, because it is he who will come to give rewards with the clouds, i.e. the saints, who were clouds by raining2 upon others, and by doing miracles. Or, just as he ascended in a cloud, he will come in a cloud, by which we understand God's mercy, which is a consolation and an illumination to the good, and a terror and a blinding to the wicked. This is what was signified by the cloud by which the sons of Israel were led out of Egypt: to them it was an illumination, to Pharaoh a terror and a blinding. So in the day of the Judgment will God look like an illumination to the good, and like a terror and a blinding to the wicked3.
And every eye shall see him. Another translation has "all the earth4 shall see him such", as if saying "they shall see him such as the impious did not believe he would come".
They shall bewail themselves, or dash5 themselves upon him, incapable of resisting his power, after the likeness of a stone and earthen vessels6.
Yes. Amen (In the Latin: Etiam. Amen.). By these two adverbs, one of which is Greek - namely etiam7 - the nations are signified; by amen, which is Hebrew, the Jews: all these shall see God in the judgment. 8
The first vision gives a correction; through correction one comes to happiness, through happiness to contemplation, through contemplation to eternal life. 9

1:8 I am (a)Alpha and Omega, the beginning and (b)end, says our (c)Lord God, (d)which is, and which was, and which (e)shall come, the Omnipotent.
a.   Before whom there was no one, or from whom everything started.
b.   After whom there is no one, or in whom everything shall end.
c.   Of the prophets who say that everything shall end in him.*
d.   I, the Lord, say this.*
e.   Sc. in Judgment Day.*
He will really come, because he himself promised he would come. Or, after writing a salutation first, he makes readers attentive, as if he were saying: do not believe that this is said by me, but by Christ himself.

1:9 (a)I John (b)(c)your brother and partaker in tribulation, and (d)the kingdom, and (e)patience in (f)Christ Jesus, was in (g)the island, which is called (h)(i)Patmos, (j)for the word of God and (k)the testimony of Jesus.
a.   From the protagonist.*
b.   The master's humility.*
c.   I.e. in the unity of faith, and having been afflicted for that faith, like others I have patiently endured that through which one can attain the kingdom, by holding Christ as an example in all things.
d.   I.e. in paradise.*
e.   I.e. patient in God.*
f.   I.e. Christ's example.
g.   I.e. the Church.*
h.   I.e. "heat" or "tribulation", in which heavenly things are better revealed to the faithful.
i.   The place.*
j.   The reason.*
k.   Sc. given to his divinity and to his humanity.
I John. As if he were saying: I know that you are afflicted, but that you endure patiently following the example of Christ, so that you may be sharers of his kingdom. And the salutation being finished, he moves on to the narration by mentioning four things: the protagonist, the place, the reason for the place, and the time; things which are useful for the recommendation1 of the revelation itself.
The Church is compared to an island because as an island is beaten by marine storms, so is the church afflicted by the persecutions of marine, i.e. worldly people.

1:10 I was (a)in spirit (b)(c)on the Dominical day, and (d)heard behind me a (e)great (f)voice as it were of a (g)trumpet,
a.   I.e. in an ecstasy of mind. [HAIMO OF AUXERRE, PL 117.939]
b.   The time.*
c.   I.e. placed in hope of resurrection through the resurrection of Christ.
d.   I.e. recognized.*
e.   Because he was about to talk about future things and about great things.
f.   I.e. manifestation. 
g.   Sc. by which one is roused to war.
On the Dominical day. The quality of things is often marked by the time at which they happen, as Abraham, in the fervor of his faith, saw the angels at midday; Adam after midday; Loth, in the destruction of Sodom, in the evening1; Solomon received at night the wisdom he would not keep.
Heard behind me a great voice. He heard it behind him because while, led out of the present matters, he was stretching his power of contemplation to the past2, he was reminded to look back at others as well. Or he heard it behind him because he understood that this same thing had been foretold by the law and the prophets.3

General Discussion / Translation of the Glossa Ordinaria- Revelation
« Last post by glossa on May 15, 2015, 09:04:17 pm »
Fortunately an English translation of the Glossa Ordinaira on the book of Revelation is close to being published!  Sarah Van Der Pas has translated the whole gloss on Revelation and is very close to finishing her editing and corrections.  I am posting chapter 1 of that translation so that people can have a sneak preview!

By the way here are some sources to the Gloss on Revelation so that people can translate if they like
General Discussion / Translate some glosses- Esther
« Last post by glossa on May 15, 2015, 06:27:32 pm »
Thanks to Jacob Cerone there are some sections of the gloss on Esther that are translated.

If anyone is interested in translating some then here are some resources
General Discussion / Translate glosses on Tobit
« Last post by glossa on May 15, 2015, 06:24:32 pm »
I started a translation of the Gloss on Tobit a few years ago but never followed through.  Here is what I worked on

If anyone is interested in doing some translating on some glosses on Tobit then here is a resource from

General Discussion / Re: Translations of the Gloss- Jonah
« Last post by glossa on May 15, 2015, 06:17:57 pm »

And Jonah was exceedingly troubled, and was angry:

For he had said that he wanted to run away, and accuses the Lord of injustice in a certain manner.  That said,  I have interpreted as 'I beseech you' is read as ANNA in Hebrew, which seems to me to express the prayer with a kind of coaxing.

was exceedingly troubled: It is not the multitude of the Gentiles who should be saved that made him grieve,  but it is that he sees his own nation going perish, and that he had been the only one of the prophets chosen to announce the people's ruin to them through the salvation of others and the lost hope for Israel. Moreover our Lord wept for Jerusalem and refused to take bread away from the children to give to the dogs (Mt 15:26). And the Apostles preach firstly to Israel (Acts 13:46), and Paul wishes to be accursed for his brothers who are Israelites (Rom 9:3).  But Jonah, which means grieving even unto death, is saddened for the people of the Jews who shall die. The name of the griever is also appropriate to the story, since it signifies the labor of the prophet, weighed down by the miseries of his journey and the shipwreck.

And he prayed to the Lord, and said: I beseech you, O Lord, is not this what I said, when I was yet in my own country? therefore I went before to flee into Tharsis: for I know that you are a gracious and merciful God, patient, and of much compassion, and easy to forgive evil.

to the Lord- "My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death [Mt. 26:38; Mk 14:34)."  And again: "Into Your hands, O Lord, I commend my spirit (Ps. 30:6)."
my life from me- I was not able to save the whole nation of Israel by living, but I will die and the whole world will be saved.

For I know that: I knew that you are merciful and would do this: this is why I refused to denounce you as fierce. Therefore I wanted to be free to flee to Tharsis in contemplation, and I preferred the quiet and rest on the sea of this age. I left my home, I left your bosom. If I had said that you are merciful, gentle, that you pardon wickedness, no one would have repented.  If I had denounced you as a cruel God, I knew that such is not your nature. In this dilemma I preferred to flee, rather than to deceive those repenting with mildness, or to preach things about you that you are not.

And now, O Lord, I beseech you take my life from me: for it is better for me to die than to live. 4:4 And the Lord said: Do you think you have reason to be angry?

And with reason God does not say to him: 'you are wrong to get angry'  lest He seem to find fault with the one made sad.  Nor does He say, 'you have reason to be angry', so as not to contradict His former sentence. But He asks him whether he is angry so that he replies the causes of his anger or suffering, or even, if he remains quiet, so that God's truth can be proved by his silence about the judgment.

Then Jonah went out of the city, and sat toward the east side of the city: and he made himself a booth there, and he sat under it in the shadow, till he might see what would befall the city.

of the city- the world.
himself- He makes it himself, for no inhabitant of Nineveh of that age would have been able to live with the prophet.
sat- He sits as a judge or by the majesty of his contract.
see- Recourse to Scriptures to preach to God about human feelings.

Jonah the dove, or grieving, comes out of the city which Cain built, and lives in the east whence the sun rises. And it is there in his tent, where having contemplated the state of the world, he waits to see what is going to happen.  Before Nineveh was saved and before the gourd dried up, before the Gospel of Christ, the manifested true East (Zec 6:12), Jonah was under the shadow because the truth was not yet open.

And the Lord God prepared an ivy, and it came up over the head of Jonah, to be a shadow over his head, and to cover him (for he was fatigued): and Jonah was exceeding glad of the ivy.

came up- showing the miraculous power of God.

God prepared: For ivy in Hebrew we read ciceion, which grows quickly and dries quickly, could be compared to Israel, it sends its little roots into the ground and trying to raise itself up, but is not able to equal the height of cedars and cypress trees of God.

Ivy or type of shrub or sapling having broad leaves and sustaining a very dense shadow, which creeps across the ground, and without supports by which is supported does not seek the heights. But God prepared this, so that rising up on high without any support, it would supply shelter to the prophet in whom the power of God was revealed. Israel is compared to this ivy or gourd, which formerly covered Jonah under its shadow foreshadowing the conversion of the Gentiles to Christ, and it granted great joy to him making a shadow better than a house, having the likeness of a roof, but not having foundation.

But God prepared a worm, when the morning arose on the following day: and it struck the ivy and it withered.

worm- Christ, who says "I am a worm and not a man (Ps 21:7)."
ivy- which was green before the rise of the Sun of Justice, but when Christ rose, the shade was deprived of the help of God and lost all its greenery.

God prepared: Some understand the worm and the burning wind represent the Romans, who, after the resurrection of Christ, completely destroyed Israel.

And when the sun was risen, the Lord commanded a hot and burning wind: and the sun beat upon the head of Jonah, and he broiled with the heat: and he desired for his soul that he might die, and said: It is better for me to die than to live.

sun- The light dispersed the darkness of the Ninevites.
hot- And also in Hosea, "The Lord will bring a burning wind that shall rise from the desert, and it shall dry up his springs, and shall make his fountain desolate (Hos 13:15)."
broiled- with Israel.
might die- In the baptismal font in order to receive the moisture lost in denial. This is why Peter speaks to the Jews who are parched, saying, "Do penance: and be baptized every one of you, so you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:38)."

And the Lord said to Jonah: Do you think you have reason to be angry, for the ivy? And he said: I am angry with reason even unto death.

Lord- the Father.
to Jonah- the Son.

reason to be angry: Before this time, when the people of Nineveh were saved through penance, the prophet, when questioned, did not respond, but by his silence, he assented to the questioning of God.  For he knew God is merciful and pardoning wickedness and he did not feel sad for the salvation of the Gentiles; but once the gourd, Israel had dried up, and when he is asked, 'do you well to be angry for the gourd?', he replies with assurance, 'I do well to be angry and to suffer even unto death.  I did not want to save one only to see the others perish, to gain foreigners only to lose my own'.  And in truth up until this day Christ weeps for Jerusalem and he weeps until death; not his own death, but that of the Jews, so that they die refusing and rise up again confessing the Son of God.

And the Lord said: You are grieved for the ivy, for which you have not labored, nor made it to grow, which in one night came up, and in one night perished.

you- Son.
the ivy- Jews condemned.
in one night- that is, the time before the coming of Christ.
one night perished- when the Sun of Justice set for them.

you have not labored: In this instance Israel declares confidently, "Behold, for so many years do I serve you, and yet you have never given me a kid, who has devoured his substance with harlots, you have killed for him the fatted calf (Lk 15:29-30)."   He did not refute. But in this account he hears, "all that I have is yours (Lk 15:31). Now we are going back to celebrate your brother's behalf."  For the precious blood of Christ was shed for  the Gentiles: He went down to the underworld so that this people might rise up to heaven.

And shall I not spare Nineveh, that great city, in which there are more than a hundred and twenty thousand persons, that know how to distinguish between their right hand and their left, and many beasts?

Nineveh- prefigures the Church in which there is a greater number of inhabitants than the twelve tribes of Israel.
know how to distinguish- And there is a great number who do not possess the faculty of reason.

This may be understood as the innocent and simple age of the very small children and the suckling beasts; hence it may be inferred how great was the number of older ones. if so great was the number of the very young.  Or because Nineveh was a great city, and "in a great house there are not only vessels of gold and of silver, but also of wood and of earth" (2 Tim 2:20) because there was a great crowd that needed to repent and was ignorant of the difference between good and evil.

General Discussion / Re: Translations of the Gloss- Jonah
« Last post by glossa on May 15, 2015, 06:17:34 pm »
And the word of the Lord came to Jonah the second time saying:
And the word: The command is given, he hears it, he refuses, then he is forced to want, and the second time he carries out the will of the Father:  all of this is connected to Christ and to the "form of a slave" (Phil 2:7).

Not to be said to the prophet, "why have you not done what you were ordered to do?." But the punishment of the shipwreck and his devouring are enough for him to understand the Lord, the liberator, whom he hadn't known to be ordering.

Arise, and go to Nineveh, the great city: and preach in it the preaching that I bid you.
Nineveh- that is, the world.
preach- clearly.
that I bid you- I speak not of myself, but of the Son.

And Jonah arose, and went to Nineveh, according to the word of the Lord: now Nineveh was a great city of three days' journey.
Jonah- Christ.
arose- from death.  Promptly obeying.
went- through the Apostles.  Commanded.
And Jonah arose: Allegorically. Properly speaking Christ is said to rise from the grave, when He sends the Apostles to preach and to baptize men in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.  So there are the three days of journey!  This, however, is to be called the sacrament of human salvation, by way of one day, that is, by his confession of one God, Jonah is fulfilled, that is, Christ is preached among the Apostles, who said: "I am with you til the end of of the age (Mt 28:20)."

now Nineveh was: Nineveh was so large that it could hardly be circled in three day's journey.  But he remembers the command he has been given and the shipwreck and makes the normal journey of three days quickly in one day.  However, there are some people who believe that he simply preached his message in a third of the city, and the rest of his spoken word quickly reached the others.

He does not say, "for three days and three nights" or "a day and a night", but absolutely "three days", and "a day", to show that in the mystery of the Trinity and of the confession of one God there is no darkness.

And Jonah began to enter into the city one day's journey: and he cried and said: Yet forty days and Nineveh shall be destroyed.
cried- Christ, standing in the temple, cried out, "If any man thirst, let him come to me and drink (Jn 7:37)."  For every word of Christ is called a cry because He speaks of important things.
forty days: Yet "three days" and Nineveh shall be destroyed according to the Septuagint; whether forty days, or whether it be by three days, the same thing is signified about Christ, because He spent that number of days with His disciples after the resurrection, and then ascended into Heaven, but by the three days, because He rose on the third day. (St. Augustine City of God Bk XLV. 44)

It is not a prophecy emanating from the foreknowledge of God, where all things remain exactly as they are, but it is a threat aimed at correction, announcing a just revenge in accordance with the present sins of the Ninevites.

The number forty is suitable for sinners in their penance and prayer, and works and tears, and petitions and perseverance.  This is the number that both Moses and Elijah, and Christ Himself had fasted.  This led us to prepare a number for our own souls to eat the body of Christ.

Beautiful order.  God commands the prophet, the prophet preaches to the city, first to those who believe, they proclaimed a fast, regardless of age everyone wears sackcloth. The men do not announce the putting on of sackcloth, but only preach fasting. All the same, with reason, those to whom penitence has been proscribed wear sackcloth and fast on an empty stomach, and mourning, and pray to the mighty God.

And the men of Nineveh believed in God: and they proclaimed a fast, and put on sackcloth from the greatest to the least.
men- Those who come from "a perfect man, unto the measure of the age of Christ (Eph 4:13)."
believed- the foreskin believed, but circumcision remained without faith.
fast- Sackcloth and fasting are the weapons of penitence.
the least- Because no one is without sin, not even an infant of one day.
Those who had offended God through their luxury and pomp, or by condemning all that they had themselves previously offended with. First of all, fasting is offered to God in secret, and then sackcloth, which is offered outwardly to men.

Nineveh fell, which was impious, and Nineveh just arose, which was not. Its walls and houses standing, it was ruined in their wicked manners: and though the prophet was saddened that the event did not meet the threats and terrors his prophecy of Nineveh, it nevertheless came as it was predicted in the divine foreknowledge.
men- Those who come from "a perfect man, unto the measure of the age of Christ (Eph 4:13)."
believed- the foreskin believed, but circumcision remained without faith.
fast- Sackcloth and fasting are the weapons of penitence.
the least- Because no one is without sin, not even an infant of one day.

And the word came to the king of Nineveh: and he rose up out of his throne, and cast away his robe from him, and was clothed in sackcloth, and sat in ashes.
of his throne- He humbled himself, laying down the height of power and eloquence.
was clothed- penance for past evils.
ashes- not of unclean opinions, but of words.
And the word came: After the world's weak and ignoble had been chosen, the word of Christ finally reached the philosophers and the powerful, who seemed to rule the world.  First Peter the fisherman enters, then Cyprian, first being idolatrous, and finally believes he became champion of the truth, after hearing the words of Jonah, he calls Carthage to repentance, and publicly proclaims Christ.  Behold, the King of Nineveh arose from his throne, exchanged his purple for sackcloth, his perfumes for mud, and cleanness for uncleanness.  It is very difficult for the powerful in this world to go from eloquence to lowliness and to be converted to Christ.

And he caused it to be proclaimed and published in Nineveh, from the mouth of the king and of his princes, saying: Let neither men nor beasts, oxen, nor sheep taste anything: let them not feed, nor drink water.
men- reasonable.
beasts- the foolish.  "Men and beasts You will preserve, O Lord (Ps 35:7)."
oxen- the wise.
sheep- the simple.
And he caused it: Hence the Septuagint, by the order of the king and his nobles, it was announced throughout Nineveh.  And has been proclaimed by the king at Nineveh and from all his ancestors.

And let men and beasts be covered with sackcloth, and cry to the Lord with all their strength, and let them turn everyone from his evil way, and from the iniquity that is in their hands. 3:9 Who can tell if God will turn, and forgive: and will turn away from his fierce anger, and we shall not perish?
sackcloth- Mourning cloth, the worry and sadness that are metaphorically by sackcloth.
let them turn- to the Lord.
from his evil way- which of themselves.
their hands- not only in thought but also in their deeds.
will turn- conversion.
and- thus God will forgive.
fierce- which He would almost have begun to unleash His wrath.
perish- I will convert.
Who can tell: Under ambiguity, he says, "they present as a question, in order that doubting their salvation, they may more forcefully do penance, and may better rouse God to mercy."

And God saw their works, that they were turned from their evil way: and God had mercy with regard to the evil which he had said that he would do to them, and he did it not.
the evil- affliction.
And God saw: Just as for the Ninivites, every day God threatens destruction to the whole world,  in order that they may do penance.  If they convert, then the Lord will change His sentence, and it will be changed by the conversion of the people.

But God did not hear those words that Israel often promised: "so declare unto us, and we will do it (Jer 42:40),"  but he sees the works. And because He prefers a sinner's repentance rather than his death (Ez 33:11) He willingly changes His sentence because He has seen a change in the works.  Or rather God has continued in His plan, since He originally wanted to have pity. No one in fact who desires to punish, threatens what he will actually do.
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